Shmāgh: (Sumerian: ish makh: headcover, synonyms: kūfīyah, shmāgh, haṭṭah, mshadah, qaḍāḍah, jamadānah, ghutrah) a large square piece of white-based woven cotton, folded in half to form a triangle. The folded edge is worn across the forehead fastened by a cord (‘iqal) and draped off the shoulders. It often has geometric embroidery in a square-like pattern, the most famous being red and black. Worn in the Levant, Iraq, and the Arabian Gulf.