Al Shaylah – A headscarf revolution Cultural Dress
Origin and historical background
The termis relatively new, it’s origins doubtful and exclusively applied to the headscarf in the UAE region. It was originally used as an overall body cover that also covered the head, but within a relatively short time, it became only a headcover.
Some items of clothing from Islamic and Arab backgrounds resemble theand can be divided into two categories: head covers, and overall body covers:
- Al-buqhnuq, al-bushiyah, al-khimar, and al-hijab are all headcovers that closely resemble the . Al-buqhnuq is made of black lightweight fabric decorated with embroidery work, similar to the , but it is tailored at one end to allow just the face to show.
- Al-izar is the oldest form of mantel used by both genders. It existed prior to the Islamic era and had been worn by Jews, Christians and Muslims. It was described both as a piece of non-stitched cloth used to cover the body and worn on top of clothing and as a stitched item of clothing. It was made of a heavier fabric than the , such as velvet and wool.
Shape and design
The basic form of thewas and still is a black Indian cotton cloth in the form of a scarf intended to cover the head and the upper part of the body. This fabric was originally imported in pre-cut pieces of 2 x 2.5 war (about 1.8 x 2.3 meters). Before the became popular and in common use during the late 1960s, two such pieces were commonly stitched together at the long edge to create a large square cloth that was used as an outer cloak that covered the entire body.
Sometimes other textiles were used to make the:
- nil, also known as nidwah, made of loosely woven gauze cotton called sash. Though mainly black, it had a reddish lustre due to the nil or indigo stain, which coloured the skin when worn.
- tur, made of black Indian lace resembling tulle, with diverse openly woven patterns.
- bu-nfah, made of either simple black malmal cotton or tur, both fabrics having a distinctly speckled texture created during the weaving process.
- minaghidah or minaqidah, also known as minaqat, meaning spotted. The name is derived from naqid or nuqud meaning coins, either in reference to the shape of the fabric’s coin-shaped design or to the value of the silver threadwork. It is made of a delicate black chiffon lace or tulle and is decorated with patterns made of silver thread known as khus. This refined form of al was reserved for special occasions such as weddings. If a real silver thread were used, the value was determined by the weight of the silver. This was an excellent saving method, as in times of need the would be burned and the silver collected and sold.
Khus was originally imported from India in a bundle known as kuwar or kiran, although it was later brought from Japan. It consists of silver drawn through a series of dies until a very fine thread is obtained. This is then hammered flat and either used to embroider in this ribbon form or wound around a silken core to make thread. These days thin ribbons of shiny base metal or copper wire, silver gilded by electrolysis, are wrapped around cotton threads, and at times plastic may even be substituted for cotton.
These narrow, 2.5mm wide, flat strips, or ‘straws’, are inserted through the net fabric and folded to create a star or speckled effect. The speckle is then repeated to create more intricate patterns of lozenges, triangles, and other angular geometrical shapes and rigid plant-inspired motifs. Curved patterns are not possible because of the limitations of the flat strips.Excerpt from Sultani Book by Dr Reem El Mutwalli. Volume II, page 323
The social practice of wearing the
The burghu both at home and in public as soon as a young woman began to show signs of womanhood. Traditionally, both were kept on even in all-female company. Normally the almost square-shaped cloth was placed on the head covering the forehead with the sides falling on the back of the shoulders and extending down to the knees. It could also be draped across the face with one end tucked to the side above the ear and the opposite end falling on the chest or to the back, with the burghu fastened on top. This was the case when the was worn at home or when performing household duties. It was secured in various folds onto the back of the shoulders to allow the arms freedom of movement while working.was worn in conjunction with the
When in public theacted as an outer cloak and was then usually either gathered at the chin or at the chest and held in place with one hand, or it was held tight to the face by holding one side with the teeth, covering part of the face and mouth, while the other side was left spread out at the back behind the opposite shoulder.
Today many women still hold one end of thebunched in one hand to cover their mouth while speaking, with or without a burghu. While some spend much of their time re-arranging their headscarf, others feel more secure with the added protection of the burghu.
Functions of al
Originally, the function of thewas exclusive as an Islamic Khimar, concealing the head, hair, and upper body of a woman. At times it also served as an overall body cover hijab, shielding the entire body from view. However, recently the use of the has become more practical – the floats with the wearer’s movements and can be drawn shyly over the mouth when speaking, signalling modesty and good breeding. The subtle differences in length, width, and fabric thickness can indicate to the trained eye whether the wearer is from Saudi, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman or the UAE. The quality of fabric and type of embellishment can also clearly indicate the wearer’s status and wealth.
Modifications and alterations
Four main factors influenced thedesign during the last few decades, all directly related to the sudden surge of wealth and exposure to the outside world.
- The introduction of new types of textiles such as chiffon, silk, French and Italian lace, as well as synthetic fibres from both the East and the West. Though the basic colour remained black, the new fabrics allowed experimentation with different textures and densities.
- The introduction of the shoulder which lead to a change in the ’s length and width as its function was now limited to covering the head and not the whole body.
- An abundance of decorative ornaments such as beads, crystals, ribbons and lace trimmings became readily available in local markets.
- A rush of inexpensive skilled labour.
All of these factors allowed for more extensive designs, decorative motifs and finishing ornaments on the.
During the 1960s five types of shaylahs were used:
- niduwah, also known as mirah – a simple sash cotton style for everyday use both indoors and out. A new was first worn outside and in public and once it became worn it was used indoors while doing housework and a new one of the same kind was then bought for outside wear.
- wasmah, made of heavier cotton and about two by three adhru (a forearm’s length – approximately 45cm) in size. It served as a , , and gishwah all in one. It was wrapped around the entire body to conceal it in public.
- nil, a type of sheer indigo-stained cotton gauze. It was laid on a flat surface and beaten repeatedly on each side in a special way known as yisighlunha to introduce a lustrous shine. This polished was reserved for special occasions such as Eid celebrations and weddings.
- bu-nafah, more formal and used for social gatherings and outings. Older women chose cotton as a sign of maturity, but younger, newly married women chose tulle to accentuate their beauty.
- minaghidah, the dressiest type of made of Indian tulle or imitations silk (nylon) and decorated in elaborate patterns using khus. Most of the ornamentation was concentrated on the two outer edges of the as that was the most visible part of the garment. For very special occasions the whole was decorated with a grid of intersecting silver lines and small motifs. This created a heavier, more impressive and definitely more expensive .
With the introduction of European textiles in the 1970s came thesari, replacing the cotton of the niduwah with chiffon, making it easier to wear as it was less wrinkly and didn’t slip off the head as easily.
Thesesaris came in three different densities for different occasions.
- The lightest, most transparent form was used on outings and social gatherings to enhance the display of new hairstyles and jewellery and to blend with the newly acquired European fashions.
- The second type was less translucent, and a somewhat thicker fabric worn at social gatherings of a more public nature. It enhanced the wearer’s display while simultaneously being more concealing. It was also used by women working in semi-public spaces.
- The last type was much denser and opaquer to be worn in very open public areas to ensure complete concealment. All three were made of synthetic materials and bought is sets of six pieces in a box.
In the late 1970s, machine embroidery became popular allowing lightweight, repetitive designs to be used over the full surface of the. Although embellishments were still mainly black or silver, coloured threads started to appear. As most of the tailors and embroiderers were of Indian origin, many of the designs and motifs were inspired by their background.
The 1980s were marked by a fascination with heavy embroidery and intense glitter on all garments, both traditional and Western-influenced. A novel decorative technique using iron-on studs and crystals became popular. It could be added in strips or in delicate patterns, used on its own or combined with embroidery and was available in a multitude of colours.
This period also saw the launch of theand ensembles – coordinated sets of clothing imported from Saudi Arabia. The worn on the top of the head made way for the shoulder which in turn required a narrower that only covered the neck and face.
The 1990s saw a saturation of all things shiny. Tastes were becoming more mature as a result of constant exposure to the rest of the world. The overwhelming brilliant decorative elements were given up in favour of simple, subtle, monochromatic and more subdued hues. Embroidery, if used, was only applied in narrow bands and black-on-black became popular. Crystals were used very sparingly and only in clear, un-coloured highlights that sparkled as they caught the light.
During the mid-1990s European lace borders were added to theto compliment the newly acquired European evening dresses which became popular during this time. Lace borders were added along one long edge of a to frame the face. It was worn on the head with the two ends hanging gracefully down the sides to accentuate the dress, jewellery and hairstyle of the wearer. These garments very delicate and not wrapped or used for concealment but rather as a modest enhancement.
Towards the end of the previous century, rectangular scarves produced by famous European design houses such as Gucci, Versace, Dior, and YSL became popular and was used to match designer outfits of long skirts or pantsuits.
In the early 2000s a new look known asbu kafkhan, meaning balloon, became popular. Women tied their hair in a bun on top of their head to give the a more pleasing and softer drape around the head and face. In some cases, women added headbands or hair sponges to give an exaggerated lift to the hair at the back of the head resulting in a softer drape and a distinctly Renaissance look.
Today the role, shape, style and fabric of thekeeps on changing and adapting to customs and fashion. What started out as a practical garment has become more of a fashion statement, yet, religious, traditional and social values still hold its place in the lives and of UAE women and will continue to play a role in how, where and when a is worn.